Miscellaneous Hand Tools

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CLAMPS

"C" clamps consist of a "C" shaped frame into which an adjustable screw is assembled. The size of a "C" clamp is measured by its capacity-the dimension of the largest object the frame can accommodate with the screw fully extended. Also important is depth of throat, the distance from the center-line of the screw to the inside edge of the frame. "C" clamps range from 1" to 12".

Bar clamps have a clamping device built on a bar (usually steel). Their length varies from 6" to 8'. The length of the bar determines the capacity of the clamp, which is the dimension of the largest object that can be accommodated between its clamping jaws. "Reach" is the distance from the edge of the bar to the end of the clamping jaws. Screw pressure applies the final clamping load.

Another type of bar clamp features one-handed operation. A pistol-grip handle allows the woodworker to adjust jaw pressure with one hand; a trigger release unlocks the grip. It is available in jaw openings from 6" to 36".

A pipe-clamp fixture is an adaptation of the bar clamp. A set of clamp fixtures is mounted on a piece of pipe of any length to make an economical, practical bar clamp. The fixtures are easily switched from one piece of pipe to another.

Threadless-pipe clamp fixtures are designed so ends of pipe don't need threads. A hardened steel set screw holds the head firmly on pipe, but is easily loosened. The ¾" size has a crank handle, and depth from screw center to pipe is 11/16". The 3/4" size has a crosspin handle, with depth from screw center to pipe of 7/8".

A hand-screw clamp is two hardwood clamping jaws adjusted to the work by two steel screw spindles assembled into the jaws.

A spring clamp is two metal jaws to which clamping pressure is applied by use of a steel spring.

Web clamps apply even clamping pressures around regular and irregular shapes and hold tight by means of a spring-loaded locking fixture.

A hold-down clamp is the screw portion of a "C" clamp, designed to be secured onto any surface, with the screw used to apply clamping pressure.

Edging clamps are used for installing molding and trim on furniture, countertops, etc. Also for holding work at right angles, welding or soldering. They are designed to hold edging strips, molding, trim, etc., firmly when fastening to the edge or side of work, leaving hands free.

Corner clamps are designed to hold miter or butt joints at a 90° angle. They can be used for making picture frames, cabinets, molding and trim.

CONCRETE FASTENING TOOLS

Concrete fastening tools allow pins and studs to be set in concrete and cement block with only a few hammer strokes. The tool itself consists of a plastic or polypropylene handle with a tempered steel rod protruding from the top and running almost through the tool. On the bottom of the tool is a hole into which specially tempered pins and studs are inserted head first.

On each pin and stud there is a washer, about a third to a quarter of the way up from the point. After the head of the pin or stud has been inserted into the fastening tool, a few hammer blows on the protruding steel rod will set it in position. Pins and studs can also be driven through 1/8" steel and still set in concrete. When properly set, fasteners can hold up to 100 lbs.

A heavy hammer with a head weight of 3 lbs. or more is needed to use this tool.

WINCHES

Quality winches feature baked- enamel finishes with plated ratchet locks and high carbon-steel pinion gears. Winches are rated by weight capacity, ranging from about 900 to 2,000 lbs. capacity. Gear ratios from 3-to-1 up to 5-to-1 are common. Some models have an optional ratio as high as 12-to-1.

An adjustable handle can be shortened to lift loads fast and extended to lift heavier loads easily. In top-of-the-line models, pinion shafts and gears are furnace brazed and heat treated for strength and hardness.

VISES

The size of a vise is measured by both the jaw width of the vise and the capacity of the vise when the jaws are fully open.

Utility or home workshop vises have jaws ranging from 3" to 6". Better models feature swivel bases so the vise may be turned to the best angle for each particular job. Some utility vises either have cast-in pipe jaws or permit special curved-face pipe jaws to be inserted between the regular jaws to add versatility.

Woodworking vises are available with jaws from 6" to 10" wide. Some woodworking vises have a "fast-acting" screw arrangement for the rapid positioning of the movable jaw prior to clamping. Smaller vises have continuous screws and are light and easy to clamp on a workbench or sawhorse.

A hinged-pipe vise is used to hold pipe in position for threading and cutting.

An angle vise can be adjusted to a flat position and used as a regular vise. Marked adjustments permit the user to obtain any desired angle. The vise can also be locked into any position with a thumbscrew and bolts can be tightened for permanent positioning.

Clamp vises are a combination fixed and portable vise, featuring a bottom clamp for easy attachment to workbenches, sawhorses, tables, etc.

Bench vises are designed for light work in the home, garage and farm. They come in stationary and swivel models, of cast gray iron, milled and ground jaws, machined to ensure proper operation.

RIPPING BARS

Ripping bars are used in construction, demolition and where pulling nails, ripping wood, prying molding and similar tasks are done. Because of their length, they have more leverage than do hammers, enabling them to pull much larger and longer nails.

EMBOSSING TOOLS

Label makers are used to make permanent, self-adhesive, raised letter plastic labels. To print a letter, the letter dial is turned to the proper letter and the lever on the handle is pulled or squeezed. The letter appears sharp white on a wide range of colored tape backgrounds.

Features include dual tape tracks so different width tapes may be used; dual letter spacing so wide spacing can be done instantly; and snap-in, interchangeable embossing wheels. Special character wheels are available.

PROPANE, MAPP GAS AND OXYGEN TORCHES

Torches are defined by the uses for which they are designed and by the fuels they use - propane, MAPP gas or oxygen.

Propane torches light instantly and burn with a clean blue flame; they require no pumping, priming or preheating.

They consist of a disposable propane fuel tank with a burner assembly that screws on top. The burner has a built-in valve that turns the torch on or off and regulates the size of the flame. They will operate in a variety of positions, but should never be turned upside down; the liquid fuel will get into the valve assembly, creating a potentially dangerous situation.

Propane torches are used for heavy-duty soldering operations and for burning off old paint or exterior siding. For this task a flame-spreading tip or heavy-duty burner is required.

When equipped with a pointed or chisel-edged cutting tip, these torches can also be used for removing old putty around windows, for installing asphalt tile or for branding initials and other designs on wood.

Brazing torches for the nonprofessional use propane or high-temperature fuels. High-temperature fuels include MAPP, Clean-Burn and propylene. With high-temperature fuels and venturi-type tips, brazing torches generate temperatures up to 3,600 degrees. The temperature level is hot enough to perform light brazing jobs on sheet metal up to 1/8" thick and steel rods up to 5/8" in diameter. This torch is excellent for light metal repair, plumbing, heating and air conditioning applications where copper tubing and fittings require silver solder.

Welding torches available for the d-i-y market include solid oxygen and propane torches as well as compressed oxygen and propane fuel. Oxygen and propane torches generate temperatures in excess of 5,000 degrees.

The solid oxygen torch will give the user greater cutting capacity due to the amount of oxygen which is generated by the solid oxygen pellets. The oxygen/propane tank-type torches are convenient to use for light metal repair and cutting and bending of metals.

Oxygen/propane torches are portable and weigh approximately six pounds. Kits usually include an extra tip, brazing rods, glasses and all necessary accessories for immediate work.

Make sure to stress safety tips when using torches. For example, do not use a torch to remove paint from the exterior siding of a house. The flames can ignite combustible materials underneath the siding.

SOLDERING TOOLS

SOLDERING GUNS

Soldering guns are used for a variety of chores-hobbies, minor electrical repairs, plumbing and other do-it-yourself home repairs.

They offer advantages over conventional irons-they heat and cool rapidly, are easy to handle and may have several heat levels. Some feature built-in lights to illuminate work. Guns are turned on and off by a trigger switch.

Maintenance is easy and inexpensive because gun tips are relatively low priced and easily replaced. Complete kits contain guns, extra tips, solder and accessories. Cordless models are available for added mobility.

Solder with an acid-core flux is used in plumbing and general use applications. Solder with plastic rosin-core flux is used on electrical work, to prevent electrical leakage.

SOLDERING IRONS

Irons come in four basic groups: line voltage, low-voltage pencils, temperature-controlled and soldering coppers.

They are slower heating and cooling than guns. Electrically heated irons are rated by watts. The watt rating tells how much heat of a given temperature can be delivered rather than the temperature itself. An iron's capability can also be measured by the tip temperature and the heat-recovery capability of the tip being used.

Line voltage soldering irons and pencils have built-in electrical heating elements and are used for hobbies, electronics, model making and small household repairs. Larger irons are used for home and shop repairs, sheet-metal work and general soldering.

Low-voltage pencils operate from batteries in cars, trucks, boats and aircraft and are used for field servicing of wiring, electronic gear, etc., by servicemen and hobbyists.

Temperature-controlled units operate either from special power supplies or line voltage and are primarily used by servicemen or hobbyists. They have safeguards that protect electronic components against damage from excessive heat and voltage spikes during soldering, and enable the user to adjust tip temperatures over a broad temperature range.

Soldering coppers are irons that must be heated in a flame or by hot coals. Usually quite heavy and bulky, they are used mainly by sheet-metal shops and occasionally by plumbers.

What's the Difference
Soldering: Process similar to brazing but with lower temperature filler material. Temperature is generally below 800 degrees F (mostly between 400 degrees and 600 degrees F). A soldered joint is not as strong as a brazed joint.
Brazing: Joining two metal parts, not necessarily the same metal, using a different material to make the bond. An alloying action takes place between the base metals and the brazing filler metal. This provides a very strong joint, fully as strong as the brazing material itself. Nearly all brazing is done at temperatures above 1,000 degrees F (usually at about 1,400 degrees F).
Joining two pieces of similar metal by heating both parts to their melting point and making them flow together. A tricky, complicated task, generally requiring the use of a combustible gas with pure oxygen or an electric arc. In welding steel with an oxygen/gas torch, it is hard to make a strong weld without removing the carbon from the steel and making it more brittle.
In both soldering and brazing, the joint must be clean in order to secure a proper bond. Therefore, both parts should be cleaned with emery paper or steel wool or ground clean before making the joint. Flux is used in soldering or brazing to complete the cleaning process and seal out air. This prevents the base metals from oxidizing and makes a good bond.

 

Burner Tip Selection Guide
Job Precision Burner Tip Pencil Point Burner Tip Brush Flame Burner Tip Flame Spreader Chisel Point Soldering Tip
Soldering small fittings/connections   x      
Soldering jewelry/tiny wires x        
Soldering electrical connections         x
Soldering flat surfaces         x
Soldering over large areas     x    
Soldering gutters   x      
Starting threaded pipe joints   x      
Thawing pipes   x x    
Sealing soil pipes   x      
Removing paint     x x  
Removing putty   x      
Bending metal   x x    
Metal sculpting   x      
Laying asphalt     x x  
Thawing frozen locks   x      
Loosening screws/nuts/bolts   x      
Lighting charcoal   x x    
Autobody leading   x      
Removing brake linings     x x  
Separating exhaust pipes, autobody springs   x      
Plywood sculpting         x
Glass working   x x    
Antiqued wood     x x  

SHARPENING STONES

Abrasive stones are a good idea when purchasing a pocket or carving knife, axe, chisel, lawn mower, grass cutter, etc. Most tools need to be sharpened shortly after purchase because manufacturers generally provide only a medium edge (to prevent shipping damage).

Blades or tools that cut with a slicing action should be sharpened against the edge. Tools such as scissors or reel-type lawn mowers should be sharpened on the bevel, not on the side of the blade. Never attempt to sharpen a serrated edge-it requires special equipment.

FILES

Files are grouped by length, type and shape. Quality is determined by lasting performance and cutting ability.

Length is measured from the point (square end of file) to the shoulder (where the blade sets onto the tang). Length indicates coarseness, stroke distance and rate of stock removal.

File types are determined by shape-square, round, half-round, flat, etc.

Two other indicators of file shape are taper and blunt. As their names imply, taper files taper from shoulder to point while blunt files are the same width for the entire length.

File cut is determined by coarseness and character of teeth. Four basic cuts are single, double, rasp and curved-tooth.

Single cut denotes a single row of chisel-cut teeth. These files are used on saw teeth and metals where a good finish is required.

Double cut, used primarily on metals where rapid stock removal is necessary and a rough cut is permissible, has two rows of chisel cut teeth.

Rasp cut, used on soft metals and wood for rapid stock removal, has individually punched teeth that are entirely separate from each other.

Curved-tooth. cut features teeth that are milled in an arc. This cut is used on flat surfaces of soft metals for rapid stock removal and a fairly good finish.

File teeth are further divided into four groups-coarse, bastard, second and smooth. Coarse and bastard cuts are used on heavy work, while second and smooth cuts are used for finishing or more exacting work.

CHAIN SAW FILES

Chain saw files are made for both round-hooded and square hooded chain saw teeth. For the former, the file must be held level against the bevel of the cutting surface of the tooth at an angle of 25°-45° with the saw blade. File direction is off the cutting edge, pressing back and slightly up during the stroke.

When using a square chain saw file (lozenge shape), the file is placed under the hood so two adjacent sides of the file contact both saw-tooth edges at one time.

In both cases, depth gauges should be filed to maintain the required difference in height from the cutting teeth. A flat-side single-cut file is used for this.

Some chain saw files feature a molded-in filing angle indicator to make uniform sharpening easier.

NAIL SETS

Nail sets are used to countersink nails. Nail holes can then be filled with putty, plastic wood or other filling materials for a smooth surface.

Nail sets are sized by 32nds of an inch and range from 1/32" to 5/32". It's important that the correct size set be used for each size nail to prevent enlarging of a small nail hole by too large a set. The pointed end of the nail set should be cupped or hollowed out to avoid splitting the nail head. Self-centering nail sets are available.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), New York City, has published safety standards on nail sets and their use. Copies are available through ANSI's sales department (1430 Broadway, 10018).

PUNCHES

Punches are used with ball-peen hammers to remove pins, align holes and mark locations of holes to be drilled. They are available in a wide range of sizes in both high-carbon and alloy steels. They are similar to nail sets in appearance, but do not have a cupped or hollowed end.

Hand punches are considered general purpose tools for driving out pins and bushings and lining up bolt and rivet holes. They have a relatively blunt taper, with the size of the punch being marked by the diameter of the flat point.

Pin and center punches are similar to hand punches and are used for the same purposes. They differ only in the shape of their points. Safety goggles must be worn when these are used.

Automatic center punches are held in one hand and not struck by a hammer. They have a spring actuated internal drive that pushes the attached punch point into the material to be center punched. These punches are available in different sizes and with replaceable screw-on points.

Never strike punches with a nail hammer-always use a ball-peen hammer with face diameter at least 3/8" greater than the struck surface or a light sledge.

GLUE GUNS

Electrically operated glue guns consist of a heating element, nozzle and glue chamber. Glue or caulking sticks are put in the chamber where they are melted by heat and released through the nozzle. Cordless models are available.

The adhesive cures by cooling. The bond can be broken by subjecting the adhesive to heat again.

Some models require the operator to maintain pressure on the glue stick with his or her thumb. Others are self-feeding. The trigger mechanism on some models closes the nozzle to prevent dripping.

There are a variety of glues available-both with gun and in replacement packages-including heavy-duty type for wood joints, etc., requiring about 60-second drying time; and lightweight for paper, etc., with shorter drying time.

Caulking/sealer sticks provide waterproof protection for cracks, joints, etc.

RIVET TOOL SETS

Rivets can be used in place of screws, nails and other fasteners in many applications. Rivet tools use "blind" rivets, so called because they can be set from one side without "bucking" at the back.

They are usually purchased in sets containing one or two interchangeable nosepieces which set 1/8" steel or aluminum rivets or 3/16" aluminum rivets. Sets with fixed nosepieces are capable of setting only 1/8" steel or aluminum rivets.

Many rivet tools feature self storage of the extra nosepieces. Other features include sliding latches to lock handles closed for storage, spring-opening handles to make constant usage easy and epoxy finishes to protect the tool.

The rivet is selected in accordance with work thickness and strength requirements of job. A hole is drilled through the two pieces to be joined. The rivet is inserted in hole with mandrel pointing out. Head of the rivet tool is placed on mandrel until head of tool is flush with flange of the rivet. Handle is pumped until rivet is drawn into place and mandrel breaks-leaving neat, clean and strong fastening job.

AWLS

Awls are used to make screw starting holes when lightly tapped by hand, with hammer or soft-face mallet. Awls are also used for scribing along a straight edge to produce a sawing or layout line on wood or soft metal.

STAPLING TOOLS

There are four types of hand stapling machines: desk stapler, pliers-type hand stapler, staple gun and hammer tacker.

Desk staplers and pliers-type staplers are both anvil-in-base units. The pliers-type machines are used in heavy-duty work, although lightweight units are on the market.

Unlike anvil-in-base staplers, staple guns shoot staples with a one-hand lever operation. They are good for jobs requiring material to be held with one hand and fastened with the other.

Guns of several weights are available and used for lining closets, installing insulation, tacking ceiling tile, fastening roofing paper, etc.

Specially designed guns are made for fastening low-voltage wire. Other guns fasten wire and cable. Some guns shoot flared staples without an external anvil, to staple insulation around pipes and ducts.

Staple guns are useful for jobs such as attaching new window-shade material to an old spring roller, recovering furniture, installing new webbing on chairs, making a garden trellis, attaching weather-stripping and tacking chicken wire to a fence stake.

A staple gun can be fitted with a variety of staple sizes and attachments for specialized applications.

Electric staple guns are also available. They have the same uses as the hand-operated guns but the staples are ejected electrically with the pull of a trigger. These will accommodate a variety of staple sizes and take the work out of long stapling projects. Some guns are built with a flush front and extended nose for accurate staple placement into hard-to-reach areas.

Automatic hammer tackers look like a hammer, with the stapling mechanism in the head and the staples stored in the handle. The unit is used like a hammer and automatically drives a staple with each blow. Quality features include shatterproof handles, retractable striking edges and magnetized striking portions.

Similar to a stapler is a nail gun which drives and countersinks nails into paneling, carpeting, molding and insulation with a single stroke. It looks like a heavy-duty stapler but will not scratch, mar or dent work surfaces. Nails are 11/32" in length and come in wood-tone colors to match paneling, etc. The nail gun usually comes packaged with a supply of nails and complete instructions for the do-it-yourselfer.

Remember that while there is a wide variety of staple types and sizes, each staple gun will accept only a certain range of sizes and styles.

In choosing the proper staple leg length for the job, consider two things-the thickness of the material to be stapled and its hardness. Staple-leg lengths range from 3/16" to 9/16". In hardwood, 3/16" to 1/4" penetration is sufficient. Softwood requires up to 3/8" penetration. However, if the staple stands away from the work, it is too long for the gun being used.

TAPS AND DIES

Dies are used to thread the outside of a rod or pipe to screw it into a threaded hole. They are available in two types-solid and adjustable with either round or hex heads.

Dies with hex heads are used with wrenches or sockets instead of die stocks for close, hard-to-reach jobs and for repairing bruised or damaged threads.

Taps are used to make threads inside materials (inside diameter) which are to receive bolts or threaded pipes. They can also be used to renew worn or stripped threads.

Taps come in three basic styles: taper, plug and bottoming. Tapered taps cut full threads at the entrance and gradually less thread toward the bottom. Plug taps cut full threads to within three or four turns of the bottom. Bottoming taps cut full threads to the bottom of the hole.

Quality dies and taps offer close tolerances, are made of the finest high-carbon tool steel, are carefully heat treated and will cut clean, accurate threads.

Tap and die size is indicated by two numbers. The first number represents the diameter of the screw or bolt; the second number is the number of threads per inch. For example: a ¼-20 tap or die will cut 20 threads per inch, 1/4" in outside diameter.

An 8-32 tap or die will cut 32 threads per inch with an outside diameter of a No. 8 machine screw.

A variety of metric tap and die sizes are available, particularly useful to those who work on automobiles and motorcycles. Sizes are expressed in millimeters and decimals. For example: 10 mm x 2.50 tap or die will cut 2-1/2 threads per millimeter with an outside diameter of 10 mm.

In order to figure tap-drill sizes using conventional drills with metric taps, subtract the pitch in millimeters from the outside diameter in millimeters. The result is the correct tap-drill size in millimeters. Multiplying that figure by .0394 gives the correct figure in decimal inches and the nearest drill size can be selected.

10 mm x 1.00 tap would require a 9-mm tap drill. Multiply 9 mm by .0394 and the result is .3546 in decimal inches. The closest tap drill would be a 5/16" drill. Convert the outside diameter from millimeters to inches if a clearance hole must be drilled. This is done by multiplying 10 mm by .0394 and following the same procedure.

Taps and dies are stamped with two or three letters indicating thread series. Special tools needed to work with dies and taps include die stocks and tap and reamer wrenches.

Die stocks are adjustable tools that hold and turn dies. They are made with two handles so cutting can be done evenly and smoothly.

Tap and reamer wrenches are similar to die stocks. They are adjusted by twisting one of the wrench handles to change the opening of the jaws. Jaws on these tools must be hardened to prevent mutilation when using hardened taps.

Tap wrenches feature adjustable chucks and come with sliding T-handles.

TROWELS

Trowels are used by plasterers, cement finishers, bricklayers and masons to handle small amounts of mortar and plaster. They should be lightweight and well-balanced.

Brick trowels are used to pick up mortar and spread it on the wall for the next course of brick, concrete block or stone. The blade (which carries the mortar), post (which joins tang to blade) and tang (where the handle is inserted) are forged in one piece, with a wooden handle driven into the tang. Width at the heel (back end of the trowel) is between 5" and 5-1/2". The most popular length is 11".

Two shapes of brick trowels have become almost standard-the Philadelphia pattern with a square heel, and the London pattern, which has a rounded heel so the mortar is carried a little farther forward on the blade. Both patterns can be used for laying block, but the Philadelphia pattern is most popular.

Pointing trowels, 5-1/2" or 6" in blade size, are used by bricklayers for pointing up their work.

Pointing and margin trowels are used for patchwork and for cleaning other tools. High quality pointing and margin trowels are forged in one piece and made about the same as a brick trowel. The length of pointing trowels may be from 4-1/2" to 7". Best sellers are the 5" and 6" lengths. Size 5" x 2" is the most popular margin trowel.

Cement trowels are used to finish the surface of the cement to the required smoothness. Troweling action helps compact the surface and adds to the quality and durability of the job. Cement trowels are narrower and longer than plastering trowels. The blade is slightly convex. Blades range in width from 3" to 4" and in length from 12" to 20". Most popular size is 14" x 4".

Plastering trowels are used to carry plaster to the wall or ceiling when two or three coats are applied. They have a lightweight flexible blade with an average size of 11" x 4-1/2". They are available with a choice of two handles, either straight or curved (called the California pattern).

Floats are made of aluminum, magnesium, wood, cork or rubber. The most popular with cement finishers are wood and magnesium. The best-selling sizes in wood are 12" x 5" and 16" x 3-1/2" while the popular magnesium float is 16" x 3-1/8". Cement floats prepare the surface for troweling, or if a float (rough) finish is desired, floating is the final operation. Plasterers and other finishers very often use a sponge-rubber float for rough finishes, so there is a good demand for this type of float. The black molded-rubber float is also used by the cement finisher.

Bull floats are used by cement finishers to float large areas of concrete. The most popular sizes are between 42" and 48" long and are 8" wide. Handle sections either 5' or 6' long can be joined together so that a finisher can reach out 15' to 20' over a slab.

Brick jointers (strikers) are used to strike joints of brick walls for finished appearance. Because it receives hard wear, the tool is heat treated. Each end is a different size-most popular combinations are 1/2" x 5/8" and 3/4" x 7/8".

Corner trowels are used to form inside and outside corners; most frequently called-for sizes are square and 1/2" radius.

Cement edgers produce a radius at the edge of a cement slab, while cement jointers are used to cut joints in concrete. Edgers have straight or curved ends-6" x 3" with curved ends. 3/8" radius is most popular. Jointers, also called groovers, are 6" long and from 2" to 4-1/2" wide. Cutting edge ranges from 3/16" to 1" deep.

Tuck pointers (joint fillers) apply new mortar between old bricks. They are usually 6-3/4" long by 1/4" to 1" wide. Quality joint filler is one piece with high shank and lift and pronounced taper for flexibility.

Hawks hold plaster before application. They are usually made of lightweight aluminum in 13"- or 13-1/2"-square sizes.

DRYWALL TOOLS

Drywall trowels have a slight concave bow in the blade which helps to feather mud and make perfect drywall joints. The tempered, flexible steel blade is securely attached to a lightweight aluminum mounting. A smoothly turned basswood handle ensures a comfortable feel. There are several sizes available; however, the most popular is 11" x 4-1/2".

Drywall corner trowels are used in applying tape to corners. A flexible one-piece blade of stainless steel eliminates tape snagging and rusting. The blade angle is set at a 103° angle, thus giving perfect 90° corners when flexed in use.

Drywall pole sanders are used for sanding drywall joints, especially ceilings and sidewalls from the floor. The swivel-type head permits sanding at any angle, and the positive locking clamps hold the sandpaper firmly. Use precut sheets or 1/2 sheets of regular sandpaper. The 4" hardwood handle has a hammerhead tip for use in resetting nails.

Drywall T-squares are used like any T-square but certain features make them a must for drywall work. One arm measures 16" for aid in locating studs. Blade measures 47-7/8" and the head is notched, which enables cutting a 48" board in one stroke while board is standing on the floor. The 2"-wide blade enables the user to cut both sides of an outlet box without moving the square.

Drywall taping knives are also used for taping drywall joints. The tempered blue steel blade bows just right for feathering, but will not take a set. Can be used in covering over nail spots and other indentations in the board.

TEFLON-S COATED TOOLS

Teflon-S coated blades are self-lubricating and will not stick as readily as non-coated blades, making cutting faster and easier. Residue buildup is held to a minimum on cutting and scraping tools. The life of a blade is increased, as the coating is rustproof.

Handtool Safety
Do's:
Always wear safety goggles when using hand tools.Always wear appropriate clothing when working with hand tools.
Treat/handle all hand tool instruments with care.Be knowledgeable as to the proper hand tools to use for various jobs.
Don'ts:
Don't use torque wrenches to pry apart components.Don't use leverage extension on a wrench handle.
Never pull on a loosely adjusted wrench. Be certain wrench fits nut tightly.Don't hammer on a wrench. Wrenches are to be used with muscle power only.
Pipe wrenches are for turning and holding. Don't use them for lifting or bending.Never expose pliers to excessive heat.
Don't hammer with pliers.Never cock or tilt an open-end wrench.
Don't bend stiff wire with pliers tip.Don't bend heavy bars on light duty vises.
Don't use pliers on round shank or handle of screwdrivers for aged turning power.Don't use sheet metal cutting snips to cut heavy wire. There are tools for this purpose.
Don't use screwdrivers to pry anything apart.Don't use a tool box, chest or cabinet as an anvil or for a similar purpose.
Don't use a screwdriver as a punch or chisel.Don't use a screwdriver to test for current.
Never use a striking or struck tool with a loose or damaged handle. Replace or secure properly.Never use any struck tool with a mushroomed, chipped or damaged head.
Never strike chisels or other hard objects with a nail hammer, as the hammer may chip and cause eye or other bodily injury.Never strike one hammer with another or with a hatchet.
Never use a hot chisel for cutting stone, concrete or cold metal.Never strike a metal object with the striking face of an axe.
The axe striking face should only be used to drive soft objects such as wood or plastic stakes.Never use a bricklayer's hammer to strike metal or other tools.
Don't use brick chisels on metal. They are strictly for masonry.Never drive one maul by striking with another maul, sledge or other striking tool.
Never use a drift pin as a punch. 
Source: Hand Tool Institute

Check your state and local codes before starting any project. Follow all safety precautions. Information in this document has been furnished by the North American Retail Hardware Association (NRHA) and associated contributors. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and safety. Neither NRHA, any contributor nor the retailer can be held responsible for damages or injuries resulting from the use of the information in this document.


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